Bricks Beads and Bones important questions PDF Notes 2024

Bricks Beads and Bones important questions PDF Notes 2024: Hello students once again welcome back on our website has be all knows that exams are coming and it is very important to prepare for our exams so students were asking about the chapter Bricks Beads and Bones important questions , so in this article I am going to show you extra important questions of chapter bricks beads and bones from class 12th chapter one of history.

About chapter bricks beads and bones

Harappan civilization is also called Indus Valley civilization. Indus Valley civilization is the oldest developed civilization of India. Indian history has been enriched by the discovery of this civilization. This civilization has the same glory in the world as the civilizations like Egypt, Mesopotamia and Babylon etc. All the remains of urban civilization are found in this civilization. This civilization was rich in wealth and all luxurious items. This civilization was first discovered from a place called Harappa. After this, this civilization is named Harappan Civilization. This place is 160 km from Lahore, Western Punjab, Pakistan. Located in Montgomery district at a distance of. Here in 1921 AD, mining started under the leadership of Raibahadur Dayaram Sahni. Remains of a huge defense rampart have been found there. Many scholars have described it as the capital of the northern part.

The most ancient objects of the Harappan civilization are seals. These are made of a stone called alabaster. There are pictures of animals and especially Taurus on them. The engraved symbols of the script have not yet been deciphered. Detailed information about the Harappan civilization is obtained from the archaeological evidence of people’s remains such as dwellings, pottery, jewellery, tools, seals etc.

Bricks Beads and Bones important questions

Question 1. Why is Indus Valley Civilization called Harappan culture?

Answer – (i) Indus Valley Civilization was first discovered at a place called Harappa. That is why it is called Harappan culture.

(ii) It was first discovered by Dayaram Sahni in 1921 AD.

Question 2. What do you understand by early and late Harappan cultures?

Answer – (i) In the Indus Valley region, cultures existed before and after the Harappan civilization, which are called Early and Late Harappa respectively.

(ii) To distinguish the Harappan civilization from these cultures, it is sometimes called the Advanced Harappan culture.

Question 3. Name the various animals described in the Harappan culture.

Answer – (i) Sheep, goat, buffalo and pig etc. were prominent among the domesticated animals.

(ii) Wild species included deer, crocodile, boar etc. Remains of aquatic and moist animals like fish and birds have also been found.

Question 4. What was the use of concave mills?

Special types of concave mills were also used for this.

Answer – (i) Scholars estimate that grains were ground with their help. (ii) To crush herbs and spices to make salan or curry.

Question 5. What are the reasons for the poor condition of the Harappan site?

Answer – (i) Many ancient structures of the Harappan site have become victims of the rudeness of brick thieves. That is, it is endangered.

(ii) In 1875 itself, General Alexander of the Archaeological Survey of India Cunningham wrote that the brick thieves had stolen enough bricks to build a 100- mile long railway track between Lahore and Multan.

Question 6. Tell the extent of Harappan culture.

The North- Harappan culture extended from Jammu in the north to the banks of the Narmada in the south and from the Makran coast of Baluchistan in the west to Meerut in the north- east. This entire area is triangular and its area is approximately 1,299,600sq km.

Question 7. Name those six places where Harappan culture was advanced and complete. Also tell the names of the respective states.

Answer: (i) Harappa (Punjab), (ii) Mohenjodaro (Sindh), (iii) Chahundaro (Sindh), (iv) Lothal (Gujarat), (v) Kalibangan (Rajasthan), (vi) Banavali (Haryana).

Question 8. From which sources do we get knowledge of Harapper culture?

Answer: There are many sources of information about Harappan culture:

(1) Information about city planning, architecture and people’s lifestyle is obtained through roads, streets, buildings, bathrooms etc. obtained from excavations at various sites.

(ii) Items that provide information about arts and crafts like spindles, clay toys, metal statues, jewellery, ceramics also provide information about various professions and social conditions,

(iii) Knowledge about religion, script etc. is obtained from clay seals.

Question 9. What do you know about the public bath of Mohenjodaro?

Answer – (i) It has been found in a city named Mohenjodaro in Sindh province. This is a huge bathroom. Its reservoir is in the mound of the fort.

(ii) It is a beautiful example of architecture. Its length is 11.88 m. Width 7.01 and depth 2.43 m. Is. There are also stairs, changing rooms and a well along with it. There are also deep and wide drains to drain the dirty water.

(iii) It must have been used on religious occasions.

Question 10. On the basis of which facts can you say that Indus Valley Cleanliness And took special care of health?

Answer – (i) The houses of the people of Harappan culture were paved and roads and streets were built. Were situated on the banks of. These were high and airy houses with windows.

(ii) Underground drains were made to carry out dirty water from houses.

The water from these drains used to go outside the city.

(iii) Bathrooms and wells etc. have been found in most of the houses.

(iv) Tanks were built at various places to collect garbage.

Question 11. Which objects have been found in the burials of Harappa and why?

Answer – (i) Items of daily use, utensils, pots, jewellery, copper mirrors etc. have been found in the burials of Harappa.

(ii) There was probably a belief behind this that these things could be used after death. Jewelery from the burials of both men and women Got it.

Question 12. Describe the weight and measurement system of the Harappan period.

Answer – (i) The city dwellers used measures and weights to meet the needs of trade and exchange.

(ii) These people used ‘butts’ for weighing. These weights were standardized in 16 or its multiples like 4, 8, 16, 64, 80, 160, 320 and 640 etc.

(iii) Scale was used for measurement. Wooden and bronze sticks with measurement marks have been found.

Question 13. Calculate the period of Harappan culture.

Answer: This culture is one of the oldest cultures of the world and the most ancient developed urban civilization of India. Since its script has not been read yet, its exact date cannot be told. The utensils, seals etc. found from the excavations in Mesopotamia and Babylonia have been compared with these materials of the Indus Valley civilization. On this basis its period is 2600 BC to 1900 BC.

Question 14. Was the Indus Valley civilization an urban civilization?

Or

Describe the characteristics of civil life of this civilization.

Answer: Indus civilization was a city civilization. This is clear from the following points: (i) In this culture, roads were built in cities which connected each other.

They cut the roads at right angles and formed intersections.

(ⅱ) The arrangement of the houses is like a dragnet. These houses had all the arrangements for comfort. The houses were made of baked bricks.

(iii) Underground drains were arranged to remove dirty water from the cities.

(iv) Wells for bathing etc. have been found in many houses. (v) Public baths were built for special occasions.

Question 15. How were beads made from carnelian?

Answer: By cooking a yellow colored raw material in fire, red colored carnelian was formed. Now beads were made from it. For this, the stone pieces were first broken into rough shapes and then finely scaled and given their final shape. This process was completed by grinding, polishing and drilling holes in them. Special tools for making holes have been found at Chahundaro, Lothal and recently at Dholavir.

Question 16. Which objects do archaeologists dry to identify production centres?

Answer: To identify post- production centers, archaeologists look for the following things:

(1) rock mass

(ii) Purna Shakha

(iii) Raw material like copper ore

(iv) tools

(v) Incomplete objects

(vi) Abandoned goods

(vii) Garbage.

Question 17. What is the evidence of Oman (Arabia)’s relation with the Harappan civilization?

Answer – (1) Oman was located at the south- west end of the Arabian Peninsula.Probably the copper in Harappa came from here. Chemical analysis shows that traces of nickel have been found in both Omani copper and Harappan antiquities, which indicate the common or simultaneous emergence of this civilization.

(ii) A Harappan jar coated with black clay has also been found in an archaeological site called Oman.

Question 18. Tell two characteristics of Harappan script.

Answer – (1) Although the Harappan script has not been read till date, yet it

Certainly it is not alphabetical because each symbol of the alphabet is a vowel Or denotes a consonant.

(ii) This script was written from right to left because the gap on the right side is wide and on the left side it is narrow.

Question 19. What do you know about Cunningham?

Answer – (ⅰ) He was the first Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India. He started archaeological excavations in the middle of the 19th century.

(ii) Cunningham’s main interest was in archeology related to early historical (about 6th century BC to 4th century AD) and later periods.

Question 20. What progress has been made in Harappan archaeology?

Answer – (1) In the 1990s, people’s interest in Harappan archeology is increasing at the international level. For example, at both Harappa and Mohenjodaro, experts from the Indian subcontinent and foreign experts are working jointly.

(ii) They use modern scientific techniques. These techniques include obtaining soil, stones, metal objects, plant and animal remains Involves exploration of the surface as well as analysis of every minute piece of evidence available.

Question 21. What do you understand by culture?

Answer – (i) The word culture is used for such a group of antiquities Which are of a specific style and often together, in a particular geographical area and Are found related to time period.

(ii) In the context of Harappan civilization, these specific antiquities include seals, beads, weights, stone blades and baked bricks.

Question 22. Which grains have been found from Harappan sites?

Answer: (i) Wheat

(ii) Barley

(iii) pulses

(iv) White gram

(v) Sesame

(vi) Millet

(vii) Rice.

Question 23. What are the main features of Harappan burials?

Answer – (i) In the burial grounds here, the dead were mostly buried in pits.

(ii) Sometimes the structure of the burial pits was different from each other. In some places the surfaces of the troughs were lined with bricks.

Question 24. What is a phone? Where are these found?

Answer – (i) The substance made by cooking a mixture of ground sand and color and sticky substance is called faience. This was considered a luxury item of Harappa.

(ii) Fayette objects like containers for storing aromatic liquids have been found in the excavations of big cities like Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

Question 25: Where is the writing of Harappan script found?

Answer – (i) Seals

(ii) Copper tools

(iii) Eighth of jars

(iv) Small plates of copper and clay

(v) Jewelry

(vi) Bone- sticks

(vii) Notice board.

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